Reply Five Sentences

Your responses to other learners are expected to be substantive in nature and to reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical, empirical, or professional literature to support your views and writings. Use the following critique guidelines:

The clarity and completeness of your peer’s post.

The demonstrated ability to apply theory to practice.

The credibility of the references.

The structure and style of the written post.

Brain and Cognitive Changes in Late Adulthood-Tequilla DeVaughn


According to Broderick and Blewitt (2015), “One way to make sense of the mixed pattern of improvement and decline through adulthood is to categorize cognitive skills with regard to how heavily they depend on two kinds of underlying intellectual resources: fluid and crystallized intelligence” (489). Fluid intelligence has been described as being the mechanics of intelligence, a measurement of how well hardware is operating, including functions like speed process (Broderick and Blewitt, 2015) in addition to reasoning and problem-solving abilities (Manard, Carabin, Jaspar, & Collette, 2014). Thus, it seems relevant to assume that individuals with high fluid intelligence should be more disposed to use proactive control to maintain task-goals in an active state in order to more efficiently manage declining effect (Manard, Carabin, Jaspar, & Collette, 2014). This is sufficient information to consider when it has been noted previously that after age 40 declines become more rapid (Broderick& Blewitt, 2015). Moreover, one must note that executive functions are closely linked to fluid intelligence and include working memory, self-regulation, and cognitive flexibility (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

On the other hand, crystallized intelligence, also known as the pragmatics of intelligence, is the compilation of skills and information we have gained over a lifespan (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Furthermore, this category of intelligence is a little like the saying, “it’s like riding a bike” because the strategies we have learned for memorizing information or solving problems, forms of declarative and procedural knowledge, is less likely than fluid intelligence to show declines with age and, for some individuals, can increase even into old age (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Crystallized intelligence represents knowledge and skills acquired through education and experience in several domains (Thorsen, Gustafsson, & Cliffordson, 2014).

However, this information can be essential to professional’s aid in positive adjustment for aging adults because it provides and understanding of what may be happening on a cognitive level. Thorsen, Gustafsson, & Cliffordson expresses that an integrated model of cognitive, differential, and developmental theories notes intelligence as a function that causes development of understanding, learning, reasoning, and problem-solving.  The model also argues that development in understanding, learning, reasoning, and problem-solving is in large dependent on the increase in mental efficiency and capacity (Thorsen, Gustafsson, & Cliffordson, 2014). All in all, utilizing this information will help one identify the cognitive experiences that may be taken place and therefore aid in affective planning and interactions.


Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals, (4th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Manard, M., Carabin, D., Jaspar, M., & Collette, F. (2014). Age-related decline in cognitive control: the role of fluid intelligence              and processing speed. BMC Neuroscience, 15(1), 1-30. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-7

Thorsen, C., Gustafsson, J., & Cliffordson, C. (2014). The influence of fluid and crystallized intelligence on the development of knowledge and skills. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 556-570. doi:10.1111/bjep.12041

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